Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Characterization of m-Toluic Acid: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Journal: Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access PDF

Published: 06-Aug-15 Volume: 4 Issue: 4

DOI:10.4172/2167-0501.1000178 ISSN: 2167-0501

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Ragini Singh and Snehasis Jana*

Abstract

m-toluic acid (MTA) is widely used in manufacturing of dyes, pharmaceuticals, polymer stabilizers, and insect repellents. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of MTA. MTA sample was divided into two groups that served as treated and control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD result showed a decrease in crystallite size in treated samples i.e. 42.86% in MTA along with the increase in peak intensity as compared to control. However, surface area analysis showed an increase in surface area of 107.14% in treated MTA sample as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion was considerably reduced by 40.32%, whereas, the melting temperature was increased (2.23%) in treated MTA sample as compared to control. The melting point of treated MTA was found to be 116.04°C as compared to control (113.51°C) sample. Moreover, TGA/DTG studies showed that the control sample lost 56.25% of its weight, whereas, in treated MTA, it was found 58.60%. Also, Tmax (temperature, at which sample lost maximum of its weight) was decreased by 1.97% in treated MTA sample as compared to control. It indicates that the vaporisation temperature of treated MTA sample might decrease as compared to control. The FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra did not show any significant change in spectral properties of treated MTA sample as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of m-toluic acid, which could make them more useful as a chemical intermediate.

Physical, Spectroscopic and Thermal Characterization of Biofield treated Myristic acid

Journal: Journal of Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications PDF

Published: 27-Aug-15 Volume: 5 Issue: 5

DOI:10.4172/2090-4541.1000180 ISSN: 2090-4541

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Rama Mohan Tallapragada, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Rakesh K. Mishra and Snehasis Jana*

Abstract

Myristic acid has been extensively used for fabrication of phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of myristic acid. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated myristic acid were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Laser particle size analyzer. XRD results revealed alteration in intensity of peaks as well as significant increase in crystallite size (27.07%) of treated myristic acid with respect to control. DSC study showed increase in melting temperature of treated myristic acid as compared to control. Nevertheless, significant change (10.16%) in latent heat of fusion (?H) was observed in treated myristic acid with respect to control. TGA analysis of treated myristic acid showed less weight loss (31.33%) as compared to control sample (60.49%). This may be due to increase in thermal stability of treated myristic acid in comparison with control. FT-IR results showed increase in frequency of –CH2 and C=O stretching vibrations, probably associated with enhanced bond strength and force constant of the respective bonds. The particle size analyzer showed significant decrease in average particle size (d50 and d99) of treated myristic acid with respect to control. Overall, the results showed significant alteration in physical, spectroscopic and thermal properties of myristic acid. The enhanced crystallite size, and thermal stability of treated myristic acid showed that treated myristic acid could be used as phase change material for thermal energy storage applications. .

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Studies on Biofield Treated p-Dichlorobenzene

Journal: Biochemistry & Analytical Biochemistry PDF

Published: 24-Aug-15 Volume: 4 Issue: 4

DOI:10.4172/2161-1009.1000204 ISSN: 2161-1009

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi , Alice Branton , Dahryn Trivedi , Gopal Nayak , Ragini Singh and Snehasis Jana *

Abstract

Para-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) is widely used as a chemical intermediate in manufacturing of dyes, pharmaceuticals, polymers and other organic synthesis. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of p-dichlorobenzene. The p-dichlorobenzene sample was divided into two groups that served as treated and control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. XRD result showed an increase in crystallite size (4.93%) along with alteration in peak intensity of treated sample as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion of treated p-dichlorobenzene was considerably reduced by 8.66% as compared to control. The reduction in melting point of treated sample (54.99°C) was also observed as compared to control (57.01°C) p-dichlorobenzene. Moreover, TGA/DTG studies showed that Tmax (temperature, at which sample lost maximum of its weight) was increased by 6.26% and weight loss per degree celsius (°C) was decreased by 12.77% in biofield treated p-dichlorobenzene as compared to control sample. It indicates that thermal stability of treated p-dichlorobenzene sample might increase as compared to control sample. However, no change was found in UV-Vis spectroscopic character of treated p-dichlorobenzene as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of p-dichlorobenzene, which could make it more useful as a chemical intermediate.

Characterization of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated 1,2,4-Triazole

Journal: Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research PDF

Published: 31-Aug-15 Volume: 3 Issue: 2

DOI:10.4172/2329-9053.1000128 ISSN: 2329-9053

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Rama Mohan Tallapragada, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Rakesh Kumar Mishra and Snehasis Jana*

Abstract

Triazoles are an important class of compounds used as core molecule for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical drugs. The objective of the present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of 1,2,4-triazole. The study was performed in two groups, control and treatment. The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment group. The control and treated 1,2,4-triazole were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA), Surface area analyzer, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed a decrease in unit cell volume of treated 1,2,4-triazole (662.08 10-24 cm3) as compared to control sample (666.34 10-24 cm3). Similarly, a decrease in molecular weight of treated 1,2,4-triazole (69.78 g/mol) with respect to control (70.23 g/mol) was observed. Additionally, a substantial decrease in crystallite size (G) was observed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 16.34% with respect to control. DSC analysis showed a slight increase in melting temperature of treated 1,2,4-triazole (124.22°C) as compared to control (123.76°C). Moreover, a significant increase in latent heat of fusion was noticed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 21.16% as compared to control sample. TGA analysis showed a significant increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated 1,2,4-triazole (213.40°C) as compared to control (199.68°C). Surface area analysis using BET showed a substantial increase in surface area of the treated compound by 13.52% with respect to control. However, FT-IR analysis showed no structural changes in treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control. Overall, the result showed significant alteration of physical and thermal properties of the treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control.

Physical and Structural Characterization of Biofield Treated Imidazole Derivatives

Journal: Natural Products Chemistry & Research PDF

Published: 26-Aug-15 Volume: 3 Issue: 5

DOI:10.4172/2329-6836.1000187 ISSN: 2329-6836

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Gunin Saikia and Snehasis Jana*

Abstract

Imidazole derivatives have attracted significant interests in recent time for their usefulness in synthetic heterocyclic chemistry, analytical chemistry and pharmacology. Aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on two imidazole derivatives (i.e., imidazole and 2-methylimidazole) by various analytical methods. The biofield treatment was done by Mr. Trivedi on both the compounds and both control and treated samples of imidazole and 2-methylimidazole were characterized with respect to physical, and structural properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). X-ray diffraction study revealed that crystallite size varied in a different way for imidazole and 2-methylimidazole due to the presence of methyl group in 2-c position although their core was same. Treated sample of imidazole showed a slight increase in crystallite size (6.5%); however, treated 2-methylimidazole showed a significant increase (166.68%) in crystallite size along with decrease in peak intensity as compared to control. The latent heat of fusion (?H) of imidazole was increased up to 0.62% in treated sample as compared to control; whereas in treated 2-methylimidazole, the ?H was decreased by 22% as compared to control. Maximum degradation temperature (Tmax) from TGA of imidazole was remained same but 2-methylimidazole was increased by 1.5% as compared to control. FT-IR spectra showed slight change in stretching frequencies of treated imidazole and 2-methylimidazole as compared to control. Both the imidazole and 2-methylimidazole showed similar UV absorbance maxima as compared to respective control sample. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of either 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated imidazole was significantly increased up to 232.51% as compared to control, however, isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated 2-methylimidazole showed a minor change from -1.68 upto 1.68% as compared to control. Overall, the experimental results suggest that biofield treatment has significant effect on structural and thermal properties of imidazole and 2-methylimidazole.

Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Structural Characteristics of Barium Oxide and Zinc Sulfide

Journal: Journal of Lasers, Optics & Photonics PDF

Published: 12-Aug-15 Volume: 2 Issue: 2

DOI:10.4172/2469-410X.1000122 ISSN: 2469-410X

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi , Rama Mohan Tallapragada , Alice Branton , Dahryn Trivedi , Omprakash Latiyal and Snehasis Jana *

Abstract

Barium oxide (BaO) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) are well known for their applications in electrical, optical and chemical industries. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on the structural and physical properties of BaO and ZnS powder. The study was carried out in two groups, one was set to control, and another group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples of BaO and ZnS were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and surface area analyzer. XRD data showed that lattice parameter and unit cell volume of BaO powder were reduced upto 0.42% and 1.26%, respectively as compared to control. Whereas, density of treated BaO was increased upto 1.27% as compared to control. Besides, the unit cell volume was changed in treated ZnS from -0.55 to 0.24% as compared to control that led to change in density from -0.24 to 0.55% after biofield treatment. However, the crystallite size was substantially increased upto 40.5% and 71.4% in treated BaO and ZnS, respectively as compared to control. FT-IR data exhibited that absorption peaks at wavenumber 862/cm (control) was shifted to 858/cm in treated BaO. Upward shifting of absorption peaks corresponding to Zn-S stretching bond was observed in treated (617/cm) as compared to control (592/cm). Furthermore, surface area result showed that it was reduced by 4.32% and 2.1% in treated BaO and ZnS powder, respectively as compared to control. Hence, these, findings suggest that biofield treatment has altered the structural and physical properties of BaO and ZnS powders.

Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Structural Properties of Bronze Powder

Journal: Advances in Automobile Engineering PDF

Published: 07-Jul-15 Volume: 4 Issue: 1

DOI:10.4172/2167-7670.1000119 ISSN: 2167-7670

Authors: Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Latiyal O and Jana S*

Abstract

Bronze, a copper-tin alloy, widely utilizing in manufacturing of gears, bearing, and packing technologies due to its versatile physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on physical and structural properties of bronze powder. Bronze powder was divided into two samples, one served as control and the other sample was received biofield treatment. Control and treated bronze samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD result showed that the unit cell volume was reduced upto 0.78% on day 78 in treated bronze as compared to control. Further, the crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 49.96% in treated bronze sample on day 106 as compared to control. In addition, the biofield treatment has significantly reduced the average particle size upto 18.22% in treated bronze powder as compared to control. SEM data showed agglomerated and welded particles in control bronze powder, whereas fractured morphology at satellites boundaries were observed in treated bronze. The yield strength of bronze powder calculated using Hall- Petch equation, was significantly changed after biofield treatment. The FT-IR analysis showed that there were three new peaks at 464 cm-1, 736 cm-1, and 835 cm-1 observed in treated bronze as compared to control; indicated that the biofield treatment may alter the bond properties in bronze. Therefore, the biofield treatment has substantially altered the characteristics of bronze at physical and structural level.

The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Structural and Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel Powder

Journal: Applied Mechanical Engineering PDF

Published: 25-Jul-15 Volume: 4 Issue: 4

DOI:10.4172/2168-9873.1000173 ISSN: 2168-9873

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Shrikant Patil, Rama Mohan Tallapragada, Omprakash Latiyal and Snehasis Jana *

Abstract

Stainless steel (SS) has gained extensive attention due to its high corrosion resistance, low maintenance, familiar lustre, and superior mechanical properties. In SS, the mechanical properties are closely related with crystal structure, crystallite size, and lattice strain. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on structural, physical and mechanical properties of SS powder. SS (Grade-SUS316L) powder was divided into two parts denoted as control and treatment. The treatment part was received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated SS samples were characterized using particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Result showed that biofield treatment has significantly reduced the particle size d10, d50, d90, and d99 (size, below which 10, 50, 90, and 99% particles were present, respectively) of SS powder up to 7.42, 12.93, 30.23, and 41.38% respectively, as compared to control. XRD result showed that the unit cell volume of SS was altered after biofield treatment. Moreover, crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 70% in treated SS as compared to control. The yield strength calculated using Hall-Petch equation, was significantly increased upto 216.5% in treated SS, as compared to control. This could be due to significant reduction of crystallite size in treated SS after biofield treatment. In FT-IR spectra, intensity of the absorption peak at wavenumber 1107 cm-1 (control) attributing to Fe-O-H bond was diminished in case of treated SS. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the structural, physical and mechanical properties of treated SS powder.

Fourier Transform Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Salicylic Acid and Sparfloxacin

Journal: Natural Products Chemistry & Research PDF

Published: 21-Aug-15 Volume: 3 Issue: 5

DOI:10.4172/2329-6836.1000186 ISSN: 2329-6836

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Harish Shettigar, Khemraj Bairwa and Snehasis Jana*

Abstract

Salicylic acid is a naturally occurring derivative of benzoic acid, and widely used in organic synthesis and as a plant hormone. Sparfloxacin is fluorinated quinolone antibiotic having broad spectrum antimicrobial property. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of salicylic acid and sparfloxacin using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The study was carried out in two groups, one was set to control, and another was subjected to biofield treatment. FT-IR spectrum of treated salicylic acid showed the upstream shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 2999 to 3004 cm-1 and 2831 to 2837 cm-1 and C=O asymmetric stretching vibration from 1670 to 1683 cm-1 and 1652 to 1662 cm-1. The peak intensity in treated salicylic acid at 1558 cm-1 (aromatic C=C stretching) and 1501 cm-1 (C-C stretching) was increased as compared to control. FT-IR spectrum of treated sparfloxacin showed a downstream shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 2961 to 2955 cm-1 and 2848 to 2818 cm-1, and upstream shifting in wavenumber of C=O (pyridone) stretching from 1641 to 1648 cm-1. Besides, increased intensity of peaks in treated sparfloxacin was found at 1628 cm-1 [C=C stretching (pyridone)] and 1507 cm-1 (N-H bending) as compared to control. UV spectrum of biofield treated salicylic acid exhibited a shifting of wavelength (?max) from 295.8 to 302.4 nm and 231.2 to 234.4 nm, with respect to control. Likewise, biofield treated sparfloxacin showed the shifting in UV wavelength (?max) from 373.8 to 380.6 nm and 224.2 to 209.2 nm.

Over all, the results suggest that alteration in wavenumber of IR peaks in treated samples might be occurred due to biofield induced alteration in force constant and dipole moment of some bonds. The changes in UV wavelength (?max) of treated sample also support the FT-IR results. Due to alteration in force constant and bond strength, the chemical stability of structure of treated drugs might also be increased, which could be beneficial for self-life of biofield treated drugs.

Bio-field Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modification of Physical and Thermal Properties of Gluten Hydrolysate and Ipomoea Macroelements

Journal: Nutrition and Food Sciences PDF

Published: 25-Sep-15 Volume: 5 Issue: 5

DOI:10.4172/2155-9600.1000414 ISSN: 2155-9600

Authors: Mahendra KT, Rama MT, Alice B, Dahryn T, Gopal N, Rakesh KM and Snehasis J *

Abstract

The objective of present study was to study the effect of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of gluten hydrolysate (GH) and ipomoea macroelements (IM). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated GH and IM were characterized by particle size analysis, surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Particle size results of treated GH showed that d50 (average particle size) was decreased by 3.15% and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) by 18.40% as compared to control GH sample. The treated IM also showed substantial reduction in average particle size d50 by 4.70% and d99 by 44.40% as compared to control sample. BET analysis showed significant increase in surface area of treated GH by 374.40 % as compared to control sample. However, the treated IM showed reduction in surface area by 14.30% as compared to control sample. XRD data suggested that both control and treated GH samples were amorphous in nature. Contrarily, the treated IM sample showed intense crystalline nature; though minimal decrease was observed in crystallinity as compared to control. DSC data showed increase in melting temperature of the treated GH as compared to control which can be correlated to alteration in kinetic energy of sample. Additionally, the DSC of treated IM also showed increase in melting temperature as compared to control IM. A significant increase in latent heat of fusion (?H) was observed in treated GH by 302.55% with respect to control. Similarly, the treated IM showed 24.87% increase in latent heat of fusion as compared to control. TGA data showed higher thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated GH as compared to control. However, treated IM showed that Tmax was decreased as compared to control sample. These results suggested that biofield treatment has substantially changed the physical and thermal properties of the treated organic products (GH and IM).

Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulfiram and Nicotinic Acid after Biofield Treatment

Journal: Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques PDF

Published: 14-Aug-15 Volume: 6 Issue: 5

DOI:10.4172/2155-9872.1000265 ISSN: 2155-9872

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Khemraj Bairwa and Snehasis Jana *

Abstract

Disulfiram is being used clinically as an aid in chronic alcoholism, while nicotinic acid is one of a B-complex vitamin that has cholesterol lowering activity. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of disulfiram and nicotinic acid. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment of each drug. The treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, spectral properties of control and treated groups of both drugs were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR spectrum of biofield treated disulfiram showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 1496 to 1506 cm-1 and C-N stretching from 1062 to 1056 cm-1. The intensity of S-S dihedral bending peaks (665 and 553 cm-1) was also increased in biofield treated disulfiram sample, as compared to control. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated nicotinic acid showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 3071 to 3081 cm-1 and 2808 to 2818 cm-1. Likewise, C=C stretching peak was shifted to higher frequency region from 1696 cm-1 to 1703 cm-1 and C-O (COO-) stretching peak was shifted to lower frequency region from 1186 to 1180 cm-1 in treated nicotinic acid.

UV spectrum of control and biofield treated disulfiram showed similar pattern of UV spectra. Whereas, the UV spectrum of biofield treated nicotinic acid exhibited the shifting of absorption maxima (?max) with respect of control i.e., from 268.4 to 262.0 nm, 262.5 to 256.4, 257.5 to 245.6, and 212.0 to 222.4 nm.

Over all, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopy results suggest an impact of biofield treatment on the force constant, bond strength, and dipole moments of treated drugs such as disulfiram and nicotinic acid that could led to change in their chemical stability as compared to control.

Characterization of Physical and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Neopentyl Glycol

Journal: Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry: Open Access PDF

Published: 21-Sep-15 Volume: 1 Issue: 1

DOI:10.4172/2471-2698.1000101 ISSN: 2471-2698

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Rama Mohan Tallapragada, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Rakesh K. Mishra and Snehasis Jana

Abstract

Neopentyl glycol (NPG) has been extensively used as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of NPG. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated NPG were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD study revealed the decrease in crystallite size of treated NPG by 21.97% as compared to control sample. DSC studies showed slight change in melting temperature of treated NPG as compared to control sample. TGA analysis showed 55.66% weight loss in control NPG however, the treated sample showed reduction in weight loss (44.81%). Additionally, the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated NPG (160.40°C) was minimally increased with respect to control sample (159.72°C). This can be inferred as good thermal stability of biofield treated NPG with respect to control. FT-IR spectroscopy showed no structural changes in treated NPG with respect to control sample. The overall results showed that biofield treatment has affected the physical and thermal properties of treated NPG. Moreover, good thermal stability of treated NPG showed that it could be used as phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications.

Bio-field Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder

Journal: Nutrition and Food Sciences PDF

Published: 23-Jun-15 Volume: 5 Issue: 4

DOI:10.4172/2155-9600.1000389 ISSN: 2155-9600

Authors: Mahendra KT, Gopal N, Shrikant P*, Rama MT, Snehasis J and Rakesh M

Abstract

The present research work investigated the influence of bio-field treatment on two common flavoring agents used in food industries namely beef extract powder (BEP) and meat infusion powder (MIP). The treated powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FT-IR results showed disappearance of triglycerides peaks in both the treated powders as compared to control. XRD results corroborated the amorphous nature of both control and treated samples. The BEP showed enhanced average particle size (d50) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) by 5.7% and 16.1%, respectively as compared to control. Contrarily, the MIP showed a decreased particle size (d50;0.4% and d99; 18.1%) as compared to control.It was assumed that enormous energy was stored in MIP after bio-field treatment that led to fracture into smaller particles. The surface area was increased in both the treated powders. DSC result showed significant increase in melting temperature, in BEP and MIP, which indicated the higher thermal stability of the samples. However, the specific heat capacity (?H) was decreased in both samples, which was probably due to high energy state of the powders.

Evaluation of the Impact of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Thermal Properties of Casein Enzyme Hydrolysate and Casein Yeast Peptone

Journal: Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics PDF

Published: 06-Jul-15 Volume: 4 Issue: 2

DOI:10.4172/2167-065X.1000138 ISSN: 2167-065X

Authors: Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S*, Tallapragada RM, Jana S and Mishra R

Abstract

In the present study, the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of Casein Enzyme Hydrolysate (CEH) and Casein Yeast Peptone (CYP) were investigated. The control and treated samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), particle size and surface area analysis. The FTIR results revealed that biofield treatment has caused reduction of amide group (amide-I and amide-II) stretching vibration peak that is associated with strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in treated CEH as compared to control. However, no significant changes were observed in FTIR spectrum of treated CYP. The TGA analysis of treated CEH showed a substantial improvement in thermal stability which was confirmed by increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (217°C) as compared to control (209°C). Similarly, the treated CYP also showed enhanced thermal stability as compared to control. DSC showed increase in melting temperature of treated CYP as compared to control. However the melting peak was absent in DSC of treated CEH which was probably due to rigid chain of the protein. The surface area of treated CEH was increased by 83% as compared to control. However, a decrease (7.3%) in surface area was observed in treated CYP. The particle size analysis of treated CEH showed a significant increase in average particle size (d50) and d99 value (maximum particle size below which 99% of particles are present) as compared to control sample. Similarly, the treated CYP also showed a substantial increase in d50 and d99 values which was probably due to the agglomeration of the particles which led to formation of bigger microparticles. The result showed that the biofield treated CEH and CYP could be used as a matrix for pharmaceutical applications.

Evaluation of Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Treated p-Hydroxyacetophenone

Journal: Natural Products Chemistry & Research PDF

Published: 29-Sep-15 Volume: 3 Issue: 5

DOI:10.4172/2329-6836.1000190 ISSN: 2329-6836

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak , Ragini Singh nd Snehasis Jana

Abstract

P-Hydroxyacetophenone (PHAP) is an aromatic ketone derivative that is mainly used in the manufacturing of various pharmaceuticals, flavours, fragrances, etc. In the present study, the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment was analysed on various properties of PHAP viz. crystallite size, surface area, melting temperature, thermal decomposition, and spectral properties. The PHAP sample was divided into two parts; one was kept as control sample while another part was named as treated sample. The treated sample was given the biofield energy treatment and various parameters were analysed as compared to the control sample by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), ultravioletvisible (UV-VIS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD studies showed the decrease in crystallite size of the treated sample (61.25 nm) as compared to the control (84.18 nm); however the intensity of peaks in diffractogram was increased in treated sample. Besides, the surface area of treated sample was decreased by 41.17% as compared to the control. The TGA analysis revealed that onset temperature as well as Tmax (maximum thermal decomposition temperature) was increased in the treated sample. However, the latent heat of fusion (?H) was decreased from 124.56 J/g (control) to 103.24 J/g in the treated sample. The treated and control samples were also evaluated by UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy and did not show any significant alteration in spectra of treated sample as compared to the respective control. Hence, the overall results suggest that there was an impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of PHAP sample.

Isotopic Abundance Analysis of Biofield Treated Benzene, Toluene and p-Xylene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

Journal: Mass Spectrometry & Purification Techniques PDF

Published: 05-Oct-15 Volume: 1 Issue: 1

DOI:10.4172/2469-9861.1000102 ISSN: 2469-9861

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak , Gunin Saikia and Snehasis Jana

Abstract

Benzene, toluene and p-xylene are derivatives of benzene, generally produced from crude petroleum and have numerous applications in industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on isotopic abundance of these benzene derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Benzene, toluene and p-xylene samples were divided into two parts: control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using GC-MS. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated samples were significantly increased from un-substituted to substituted benzene rings (where, PM- primary molecule, PM+1- isotopic molecule either for 13C/12C and/or 2H/1H). The isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) in benzene was decreased significantly by 42.14% as compared to control. However, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1/PM) in treated toluene and p-xylene was significantly increased up to 531.61% and 134.34% respectively as compared to their respective control. Thus, overall data suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1/PM) in a different way for un-substituted and substituted benzenes.

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated p-Anisidine

Journal: Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry PDF

Published: 27-Sep-15 Volume: 1 Issue: 1

DOI:10.4172/2471-2698.1000102 ISSN: 2471-2698

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton , Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak , Khemraj Bairwa and Snehasis Jana

Abstract

The p-anisidine is widely used as chemical intermediate in the production of various dyes, pigments, and pharmaceuticals. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-anisidine. The study was performed after dividing the sample in two groups; one was remained as untreated and another was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Afterward, both the control and treated samples of p-anisidine were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetry (TGA-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis showed the increase in unit cell volume from 683.81 ? 690.18 × 10-24 cm3 and crystallite size from 83.84?84.62 nm in the treated sample with respect to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited the significant increase (25.44%) in the surface area of treated sample as compared to control. The DSC thermogram of control p-anisidine showed the latent heat of fusion and melting temperature and 146.78 J/g and 59.41°C, respectively, which were slightly increased to 148.89 J/g and 59.49°C, respectively after biofield treatment. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 134.68°C in the control sample that was increased to 150.02°C after biofield treatment. The result showed about 11.39% increase in onset temperature of thermal degradation of treated p-anisidine as compared to the control. Moreover, the Tmax (temperature at which maximum thermal degradation occurs) was also increased slightly from 165.99°C (control) to 168.10°C (treated). This indicated the high thermal stability of treated p-anisidine as compared to the control. However, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopic studies did not show any significant changes in the spectral properties of treated p-anisidine with respect to the control.

All together, the XRD, surface area and thermal analysis suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of the treated p-anisidine.

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Spectroscopic and Physicochemical Properties of p-Nitroaniline

Journal: Insights in Analytical Electrochemistry PDF

Published: 25-Sep-15 Volume: 1 Issue: 1

DOI:10.21767/2470-9867.100002 ISSN: 2470-9867

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Khemraj Bairwa, Snehasis Jana

Abstract

Para nitroaniline (p-Nitroaniline) is an organic compound, used as an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals drugs, gasoline and dyes. The present study was attempted to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on p-nitroaniline. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated samples of p-nitroaniline were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FT-IR spectral analysis result suggested the alteration in wavenumber of some groups with respect to control. For instance, the C=C and C-C stretching were observed at 1570 cm-1 and 1430 cm-1, respectively in control sample that were shifted to 1585 cm-1 and 1445 cm-1, respectively after biofield treatment. UV spectral analysis revealed the similar pattern of absorbance maxima (?max) in both control and treated samples. HPLC data showed an alteration in the retention time of p-nitroaniline peak in treated sample (3.25 min) with respect to control (2.75 min). GC-MS results showed a significant change in the isotopic abundance (?) of 13C and 18O in treated sample as compared to control. DSC data showed that latent heat of fusion (?H) of treated p-nitroaniline was substantially decreased by 10.66% as compared to control. However, the melting point remained same in both control and treated sample of p-nitroaniline. Overall, results obtained from different analytical techniques such as FT-IR, HPLC, GC-MS, and DSC suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on spectral, physical and thermal properties of p-nitroaniline with respect to control sample.

Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Methyl-2-Naphthyl Ether

Journal: Environmental Analytical Chemistry PDF

Published: 20-Sep-15 Volume: 2 Issue: 5

DOI:10.4172/2380-2391.1000162 ISSN: 2380-2391

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton , Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak , Khemraj Bairwa and Snehasis Jana

Abstract

Methyl-2-naphthyl ether (MNE) is an organic compound and used as the primary moiety for the synthesis of several antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. This study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of MNE. The study was carried out in two groups i.e., control and treated. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Afterward, the control and treated samples of MNE were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD study exhibited the decrease in average crystallite size by 30.70%. The surface area analysis showed 5.32% decrease in surface area of the treated sample with respect to the control. The DSC thermogram of treated MNE exhibited no significant change in the melting temperature; however, the latent heat of fusion was slightly increased (0.83%) after biofield treatment as compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 158oC in the control sample that was reduced to 124o C after biofield treatment. The result showed about 21.52% decrease in onset temperature of thermal degradation of treated MNE as compared to the control. Similarly, the end-set temperature of thermal degradation was also reduced by 13.51% after biofield treatment with respect to the control. The FT-IR and UV spectroscopic studies did not show any changes in the wavenumber and wavelength, respectively in treated MNE with respect to the control. Overall, the XRD, surface area and thermal analysis suggest that biofield treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of the treated MNE as compared to the control.

Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 3-Nitroacetophenone

Journal: Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry PDF

Published: 15-Oct-15 Volume: 3 Issue: 6

DOI:10.11648/j.sjac.20150306.11 ISSN: 2376-8045(Print) 2376-8053 (online)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Rama Mohan Tallapragada, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Snehasis Jana,

Abstract

3-Nitroacetophenone (3-NAP) is an organic compound used as an intermediate for the synthesis of pharmaceutical agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 3-NAP. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group remained as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated 3-NAP samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD analysis showed decrease in crystallite size of treated 3-NAP by 20.27% as compared to the control sample. However, the XRD peaks of treated sample showed an increase in intensity as compared to the control. The DSC result showed a slight increase in melting temperature of treated 3-NAP (80.75ºC) with respect to the control (79.39ºC). The latent heat of fusion of treated 3-NAP was changed by 16.28% as compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis showed an increase in onset temperature of treated sample (192ºC) as compared to the control sample (182ºC). Further, the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated 3-NAP was increased as compared to the control. This showed the increase in thermal stability of treated 3-NAP with respect to control. The treated 3-NAP showed an increase in average particle size (d50) by 27.6% along with an increase in size exhibited by 99% of particles (d99) by 4.9% as compared to the control. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis showed a substantial decrease in surface area by 24.6% with respect to the control. The FT-IR analysis showed an emergence of peak at 1558 cm-1 in treated 3-NAP sample as compared to the control. Nevertheless, the UV spectral analysis of treated 3-NAP showed no alterations in absorption peaks as compared to the control. Altogether, the result showed that biofield energy treatment has altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of treated 3-NAP as compared to the control.